UPSC has released a notification announcing the expected 990 vacancies and the exam schedule of UPSC IAS 2021 Exam. The UPSC Prelims has been scheduled on June 27, 2021, and UPSC IAS Mains 2021 is expected to be held on September 17, 2021. Catch up All Latest Government Exam and Vacancies
To qualify UPSC IAS 2021, candidates must study all the subject with utmost attention and dedication. This also includes UPSC Optional Subjects. As your Optional Subject, You can choose Commerce as an optional subject if you have graduation in Commerce or you have studied this subject in your Higher secondary or in college.
The point is that Commerce is a very scoring subject. Those who have made their mind to choose Commerce as the UPSC Mains Optional Paper should know the syllabus minutely to obtain the desired maks. Therefore, here is the Commerce syllabus for UPSC Mains Optional Paper:
1. Financial Accounting: Accounting as a Financial Information System; Impact of Behavioral Sciences. Accounting Standards e.g., Accounting for Depreciation, Inventories, Research and Development Costs, Long-term Construction Contracts, Revenue Recognition, Fixed Assets, Contingencies, Foreign Exchange Transactions, Investments and Government Grants, Cash Flow Statement, Earnings Per Share. Accounting for Share Capital Transactions including Bonus Shares, Right Shares, Employees Stock Option and Buy- Back of Securities. Preparation and Presentation of Company Final Accounts. Amalgamation, Absorption and Reconstruction of Companies.
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2. Cost Accounting: Nature and Functions of Cost Accounting. Installation of Cost Accounting System. Cost Concepts related to Income Measurement, Profit Planning, Cost Control and Decision Making. Methods of Costing: Job Costing, Process Costing, Activity Based Costing. Volume, cost & Profit Relationship as a tool of Profit Planning. Incremental Analysis/ Differential Costing as a Tool of Pricing Decisions, Product Decisions, Make or Buy Decisions, Shutdown Decisions etc. Techniques of Cost Control and Cost Reduction: Budgeting as a Tool of Planning and Control. Standard Costing and Variance Analysis. Responsibility Accounting and Divisional Performance Measurement.
3. Taxation: Income Tax: Definitions; Basis of Charge; Incomes which do not form Part of Total Income. Simple problems of Computation of Income (of Individuals only) under Various Heads, i.e., Salaries, Income from House Property, Profits and Gains from Business or Profession, Capital Gains, Income from other sources, Income of other Persons included in Assesses Total Income. Set - Off and Carry Forward of Loss. Deductions from Gross Total Income. Salient Features/Provisions Related to VAT and Services Tax.
4. Auditing: Company Audit: Audit related to Divisible Profits, Dividends, Special investigations, Tax audit. Audit of Banking, Insurance, Non-Profit Organizations and Charitable Societies/Trusts/Organizations.
1. Financial Management: Finance Function: Nature, Scope and Objectives of Financial Management: Risk and Return Relationship. Tools of Financial Analysis: Ratio Analysis, Funds-Flow and Cash-Flow Statement. Capital Budgeting Decisions: Process, Procedures and Appraisal Methods. Risk and Uncertainty Analysis and Methods. Cost of capital: Concept, Computation of Specific Costs and Weighted Average Cost of Capital. CAPM as a Tool of Determining Cost of Equity Capital. Financing Decisions: Theories of Capital Structure - Net Income (NI) Approach, Net Operating Income (NOI) Approach, MM Approach and Traditional Approach. Designing of Capital structure: Types of Leverages (Operating, Financial and Combined), EBIT- EPS Analysis, and other Factors. Dividend Decisions and Valuation of Firm: Walters Model, MM Thesis, Gordon’s Model Linter’s Model. Factors Affecting Dividend Policy. Working Capital Management: Planning of Working Capital. Determinants of Working Capital. Components of Working Capital - Cash, Inventory and Receivables. Corporate Restructuring with focus on Mergers and Acquisitions (Financial aspects only)
2. Financial Markets and Institutions: Indian Financial System: An Overview. Money Markets: Participants, Structure and Instruments. Commercial Banks. Reforms in Banking sector. Monetary and Credit Policy of RBI. RBI as a Regulator. Capital Market: Primary and Secondary Market. Financial Market Instruments and Innovative Debt Instruments; SEBI as a Regulator. Financial Services: Mutual Funds, Venture Capital, Credit Rating Agencies, Insurance and IRDA.
1. Organization Theory: Nature and Concept of Organization; External Environment of Organizations - Technological, Social, Political, Economic and Legal; Organizational Goals - Primary and Secondary goals, Single and Multiple Goals; Management by Objectives. Evolution of Organization Theory: Classical, Neo-classical and Systems Approach. Modern Concepts of Organization Theory: Organizational Design, Organizational Structure and Organizational Culture. Organizational Design Basic Challenges; Differentiation and Integration Process; Centralization and Decentralization Process; Standardization / Formalization and Mutual Adjustment. Coordinating Formal and Informal Organizations. Mechanistic and Organic Structures. Designing Organizational Structures Authority and Control; Line and Staff Functions, Specialization and Coordination. Types of Organization Structure Functional. Matrix Structure, Project Structure. Nature and Basis of Power, Sources of Power, Power Structure and Politics. Impact of Information Technology on Organizational Design and Structure. Managing Organizational Culture.
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2. Organization Behavior: Meaning and Concept; Individual in organizations: Personality, Theories, and Determinants; Perception - Meaning and Process. Motivation: Concepts, Theories and Applications. Leadership-Theories and Styles. Quality of Work Life (QWL): Meaning and its impact on Performance, Ways of its Enhancement. Quality Circles (QC)Meaning and their Importance. Management of Conflicts in Organizations. Transactional Analysis, Organizational Effectiveness, Management of Change.
1. Human Resources Management (HRM): Meaning, Nature and Scope of HRM, Human Resource Planning, Job Analysis, Job Description, Job Specification, Recruitment Process, Selection Process, Orientation and Placement, Training and Development Process, Performance Appraisal and 360 Feed Back, Salary and Wage Administration, Job Evaluation, Employee Welfare, Promotions, Transfers and Separations.
2. Industrial Relations (IR): Meaning, Nature, Importance and Scope of IR, Formation of Trade Unions, Trade Union Legislation, Trade Union Movement in India. Recognition of Trade Unions, Problems of Trade Unions in India. Impact of Liberalization on Trade Union Movement. Nature of Industrial Disputes: Strikes and Lockouts, Causes of Disputes, Prevention and Settlement of Disputes. Workers Participation in Management: Philosophy, Rationale, Present Day Status and Future Prospects. Adjudication and Collective Bargaining. Industrial Relations in Public Enterprises, Absenteeism and Labor Turnover in Indian Industries and their Causes and Remedies. ILO and its Functions.
*The article might have information for the previous academic years, please refer the official website of the exam.