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Blood Relationship Concepts in SSC CGL Reasoning

Updated On -

Mar 3, 2020

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Simran Nigam

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Blood relations involve analysis of information showing blood relationship among members of a family. In the questions, a chain of relationship is given in the form of information and on the basis of this information relation between any two members of the chain is asked. Candidates are supposed to be familiar with the knowledge of different relationship in a family.

Logical Reasoning in SSC CGL is one the most important for the candidates to prepare the exam. Holding 50 marks-weightage in the exam, it must be studied well while preparing for SSC CGL.

Solving Blood Relationship Questions has become an inevitable part of almost every competitive examination. Blood Relationship is one of the easiest topic in SSC CGL and also the topic which carries maximum marks so some smart working is required while attempting questions in the best way possible.

Important Relations

  • Mother’s (or) father’s son – Brother
  • Mother’s (or) Father’s Daughter – Sister
  • Mother’s brother – Maternal Uncle
  • Father’s Brother – Paternal uncle
  • Mother’s (or) Father’s sister – Aunt
  • Mother’s (or) Father’s father – Grand father
  • Mother’s (or) Father’s mother – Grand mother
  • Son’s wife – Daughter in law
  • Daughter’s husband – Son in law
  • Husband’s (or) Wife’s father – Father in law
  • Husband’s (or) Wife’s mother – Mother in law
  • Husband’s (or) Wife’s brother – Brother in law
  • Husband’s (or) Wife’s sister – Sister in law
  • Sister’s husband – Brother in law
  • Brother’s (or) Sister’s son – Nephew
  • Brother’s (or) Sister’s daughter – Niece

Some common Errors in Blood Relation

Example 1: P’s father’s Sister’s father is Q. How is Q related to P?

a). Father

b). Uncle

c). Grandfather

d). Son

Solution – (a) Here P’s Father’s sister is P’s Aunt. Her father is P’s father’s father. Therefore, Q is grandfather of P.

Example 2: Examine the following relationship among members of a family of 6 persons – A, B, C, D, E and F.

1. The number of males equals that of females.

2. A and E are sons of F.

3. D is the mother of two, one boy and one girl.

4. B is the son of A.

5. There is one married couple in the family at present.

Which one of the following inferences can be drawn from the above?

a). A, B and C are all females.

b). A is the husband of D.

c). D is the granddaughter of F.

d). E and F are children of D.

Solution – (b) It is clear that there are three males and three females in the family. Clearly, A, E and B are males. So, C, D and F are females. Also given that D is the mother of one boy and one girl. So, A and D form a couple having two children, namely B and C. Hence A is the husband of D.

Example 3:

U + V means U is the brother of V

W – X means W is the father of S

X Y means X is the sister of Y,

Y Z means Z is the mother of Y.

Which of the following means that N is the mother of O?

a). L + M / N *O

b). L – M * O / P

c). N / M * L / O

d). M + L / O * N

Solution – (d) M + L / O N means M is the brother of L and L is the sister of O and N is the mother of O.

Short Tips & Tricks for Blood Relation

  • First of all, choose the two persons, between whom family relationship is to be established.
  • Next, pin-point the intermediate relationship between the two persons i.e., such relationship through which long drawn relationship can be established between the required persons.
  • Finally, conclude the relationship directly between the two persons as you are interested to know.
  • From a person’s name, we cannot know the sex (gender). The name does not always show the gender beyond reasonable doubt.

Some more tips:

Grandfather’s (daughter-in-law) = Mother

Father's son = Brother

Father's daughter = Sister

Grandfather’s son = Father / Uncle

Grandfather’s only son (Same in the Case of Grandmother) = Father

Some of the notations of the Diagrammatic representation of family relations

1. When M is male –

2. When N is female –

3. When M, N are husband and wife –

4. When, P, Q are siblings –

5. When A has only child B –

6. When A has two children B, C –

7. L uncle is uncle or aunt of M

Challenges Faced by Students

These tips will help you to know the common errors in blood relation and how to avoid such errors by some basic knowledge of family tree and its rules.

1. Identify the persons who are in the given information.

2. Identify who are male and who are female.

3. Determine the generations of family.

4. Identify the positions and generation of the family members and draw the diagram with relationships among family members using notations.

5. Once the diagram is filled you can solve the given question.

The easiest way to solve the problems based on Blood Relationships would be to draw a tree diagram as follows:

Example –

1. Pointing to a man, a lady told his father is her mother’s uncle. How it’s the man related to the lady?

Solution: Mother’s Uncle = Grand father

Grandfather’s son = Uncle

The man is uncle to the lady.

Family tree

Representation through diagram


Example 1: Pointing to a man in a photograph, a man said to a woman, "His mother is the only daughter of your father". How is the woman related to the man in the photograph?

a) Sister b) Mother c) Wife d) Daughter e) None of these

Coded Blood Relations

In this type, relationships represented by codes and symbols like +, –, /, *. You have to analyze the required relation based on the given code. In this also you may need diagrammatic representation of problem to solve it. Use the same representation used in mixed blood relations.

In the coding equation, better to solve the code from last letter.

Ex -7:

                  If P+Q means P is husband of Q, P/Q means P is the sister of Q, P*Q means P is the son of Q. how is D related to A in D*B+C/A?


           C/A               –  C is sister of Q.

           B+C/A          –   B is brother in law of A (sister’s husband – brother in law.

           D*B+C/A     –  D is nephew of A (sister’s husband’s son means sister’s son i.e. nephew).

So, answer is Nephew.

Previous years SSC CGL Blood Relation Questions

Q1. Pointing to a lady in the photograph, Monika said, “Her son’s father is the son-in-law of my mother.” How is Monika related to the lady? 

(a) Aunt

(b) Sister

(c) Mother

(d) Cousin

Q2. Anil introduces Akash as the son of the only brother of his father’s wife. How is Akash related to Anil? 

(a) Cousin

(b) Son

(c) Uncle

(d) Son-in-law

Q3. Shikha told Aarushi, “The girl I met, yesterday at the beach was youngest daughter of the brother-in-law of my friend’s mother.” How is the girl related to Shikha’s friend?

(a) Cousin

(b) Daughter

(c) Niece

(d) Friend

Q4. Pointing to a man on the stage, Natasha said, “He is the brother of the daughter of the wife of my husband.” How is the man on the stage related to Natasha? 

(a) Son

(b) Husband

(c) Cousin

(d) Nephew

Q5. Pointing to a man in a photograph, Aarohi said, “His mother’s only daughter is my mother.” How is Aarohi related to that man? 

(a) Nephew

(b) Sister

(c) Wife

(d) Niece

Recommended Books for Blood Relation

Selecting the right books is very important for sure success in any exam. It reduces the efforts. Selecting the best books simplify your learning process and enhances your chances of doing best in the SSC CGL.

Here are the list books that the candidate must refer for best results:

Subject Book Name Author
Reasoning Verbal- Non-Verbal Reasoning R.S. Aggarwal
Reasoning Analytical Reasoning M K Pandey
Reasoning Multi-Dimensional Reasoning e-book Upkar Publication
Reasoning Reasoning Ability Questions for SSC e-book Upkar Publication
Reasoning Practice Questions for Reasoning Ability Disha Publication

*The article might have information for the previous academic years, please refer the official website of the exam.