Students aiming to appear in engineering service examination for the year 2021 are looking for preparation strategies, hoping to make the most of the current lockdown. UPSC has amplified a few new topics and made a few modifications in the syllabus of ESE. The few new added topics to the syllabus deal with the latest communication technology, types of communication technologies, and their evolutionary background.
Advanced communications are one of the newly added contents exclusively for electronics and telecommunication engineering graduates. Each year, questions that weigh around 12 to 14 marks in the preliminary stage and 35 to 40 marks during the main stage are expected during the examination solely from advance communication.
How to prepare topics under Advanced Communication for ESE 2021?
For a better understanding of the aspirants and to give a clear cut explanation about the preparation strategy of advance communication, the subject has been divided into several sub-topics are followed:
A wired type of communication that falls under one of the sub-topics of advanced communication is primarily about guided transmission which weighs about 4 to 6 marks in the preliminary stage of ESE. Optical communication withholds various contents, they are:
- The introductory part undertakes majorly about hertz frequency band. Experts acknowledge that only frequency bands till GHz are given much importance in communication systems.
- If the aspirants desire to study beyond the GHz band, about various elements and functioning, usage of block diagrams and elements' representations are recommended. Principally asked questions from the topic are dealing with derivations and numerical related.
- Regular practice of derivations and solving of numerous numerical related problems are mandatory for the appearing candidates.
- Review of optics:
- This part of optical communication deals with some basic concepts about the light that comprises the rise based on natural light, Snell's law, critical angle, acceptance angle,numerical aperture, optic power, wave optics, etc. These topics are important.
- Questions that are frequently seen in question papers are from relation to numerical aperture and acceptance angle, relative refractive index, etc.
- Objective types of questions in the preliminary stage are much expected from the review of optics. Graduates appearing for the examination can work on objective questions related to the review of optics.
- Type of fibers:
- Fibers are unclassified in several types such as single-mode step-index, multiple mode step-index, graded index, etc. This aspect of optical communication deals in detail about the fibers that are sub-classified.
- Questions raised from this topic are mostly minor and short, that is the majorly objective type for prelims and one descriptive/vast answer in the main examination.
- The part subsides under advanced communication that deals with much more practical/logical application of optical communication via various attenuations and losses that are incurred.
- Students here learn about effects, causes of it, factors and it’s dispersion characteristic, and virtually study about procedures to reduce it.
- Sources of light:
- Led and laser are the various sources of light. Students hear a study about led, laser, processes of generation, features and characteristics of the sources of light, principles that are involved during the process i.e. spontaneous emission, stimulated emission, etc.
- The sub-topic comprises a detector utilized at the receiving part of the communication link, types of it, principles involved, characteristics, and factors influencing the characteristics.
- Students are advised to have a brief knowledge of the mentioned topics.
- Link design:
- The most vital sub-topic of advanced communication that deals with the process of component selection for an optimum link design to eradicate the minimum probable losses faced.
- Varied concepts that find the application power budget or link budget calculation are considered too complicated topics for telecommunication engineering graduates which are being dealt with under link design.
Graduates who are versed in optical communication which is a bit easy and complete formula based, advises students to prepare charts and tables for easy understanding and summarising ability. The numerical on the question paper is straight and can be solved by using simple formulae. Aspirants taking up the examination are recommended to be through with all the formula.
A very notable sub-topic for students to understand about the wireless mode of communication technology. The topic directs about 4 to 6 in ESE during the preliminary stage. Important areas to concentrate more during the preparation of this subtopic are:
- The introduction: This part comprises both Kepler's law and orbital law are very important for ESE. Questions based on these laws are more frequently asked and the probability increases for the main stage.
- Types of satellites: Aspirants are guided to focus on geosynchronous and geostationary satellites. Learn briefly about the difference between them, loss calculation, geosynchronous earth orbit, uplink and downlink frequencies of several types of satellites.
- Link design: Candidates are strong in this topic since most of the conventional questions asked in ESE are link design-based. However, a common need for widespread knowledge about transponder design, uplink, and downlink designs has to be achieved to attempt the questions based on
- Wave propagation: Waves are classified into several types based accordingly on their Media of propagation. The classified waves that have crucial roles for the examination purpose are skywave, ground wave, and space wave.
- Ground wave: The concepts dealt with an underground wave that is evaluated to be very essential for ESE are factors affecting ground wave and enabled frequency range for its propagation.
- The must learn concepts in this topic are limitations of skywave of which one major limitation is maximum utilization frequency, factors affecting the propagation( day frequency and night frequency), various parameters of skywave propagation.
- Rather than the mentioned topics, other vital topics such as maximum utilization frequency under flat earth and curvature, critical frequency, virtual height, skip distance are also very important. The thorough concept of these topics is needed for ESE preparation.
- Space wave: The drawbacks of skywaves that can be overcome by space waves are an important concept for examination preparation.
The most frequently asked questions from satellite communication are numerically based on the preliminary stage and long descriptive type during the mains.
Complete knowledge about wired and wireless communication is expected to start with cellular communication, the main sub-topic of advanced communications. This part particularly deals with the latest telecommunication technology, their evolution, and how they were brought to the light. The concepts/topics of cellular communication that require additional practice while the preparation of ESE are:
- Introduction of cellular communication.
- Importance/role of cellular communication.
- Type of cells: Cells are divided into several types based on their sizes. The cells can either be macro cells or microcells.
- Techniques to split the cells or sectorisation used in increasing the capacity of the cell without disturbing the number of cells as an increase in several cells would increase the cost of cells.
- The architecture of GSM: The concepts that are related to GSM such as bandwidth calculation, handoff, and roaming. The mentioned topics are very significant for candidates during ESE preparation.
- Generation in GSM: The generation of digital communication/technology, their drawbacks in the science world, the process by which the succeeding generation of communication technology progressed.
- Introduction to CDMA: The topics that are mandatory for the candidates to have thorough read are working of CDMA, typical uplink and downlink frequency range, number of users, and the reason behind its reduced popularity among famous technologies now.
Data communication is where students learn about both wired and wireless mode of communications that carries a standard score of about 4 to 5 in ESE. This part provides information about how the data is being handled while transmitted, different protocols that are followed, and other crises related to security while the processing of transmission.
- Introduction to data: The concepts in this sub-topic that are very useful for the ESE and are to be given much priority are types of protocols for data transmission, network architecture, types of network topologies such as a star, bus, ring, and hybrid.
- System interconnections:
- Candidates to have a decent knowledge about the types of layer models (ISO and TCP) that are in worldwide use for data communication followed by layers used of the models (7 and 5).
- The functions, responsibly, benefits and protocols of every layer of the models, comparison between the two models, file transmitter protocol, and simple mail transfer protocol is to be studied in detail during the preparation of ESE.
- Candidates attempting ESE should also focus on safeguarding (encryption at the sending end and decryption at the receiving end) the data passing from one point to another as safety is given the foremost importance.
- To have an idea about the security cryptography, algorithms and other means utilized for security purposes are to be given a read. To have a brief knowledge, a detailed study about types of security, firewalls, and types of firewalls is needed.
- Applications: Applications are the main topic for ESE. The most important one in this area is the asynchronous transmission mode (ATM).
The particular topic of data communication and other subtopics under data communication are very resourced knowledge for ESE preparation as the syllabus is comparable to that of ICT- paper 1. Several questions were found in the question papers of previous years since the inclusion of advanced communication.
Generic Preparation Tips for Advanced Communication
- Candidates must prepare short notes in the form of charts and tables with important formulae and a summary of each topic.
- During the last few days/weeks before the examination, revision of the short notes prepared and voluntarily appearing for the online test is just enough to crack with a good score.
- Optical communication is the most important one since the weightage of the topic is high, students are advised to have a regular follow up of the topic with continuous solving of numerical and constantly making use of the prepared short notes for the revision.
Best reference books for ESE Advanced Communication Preparation
Graduates appearing for the ESE are advised to be very particular during the preparation of the examination and are urged to follow several study materials that are exceptionally developed for the preparation purposes of ESE.
Some books recommended by experts and previous year aspirants are:
- Electronic communication system by Wayne Tomasi: The book completely gives a standard explanation of all concepts commencing from the fundamentals, advanced communications concepts, and till the data link layer.
- Data communication and networking by B. Forouzan: The mentioned book has been highly recommended by graduates for topics such as security, application, protocols, etc.
The above-mentioned books are more than just enough and sufficient to cover all concepts related to advanced communications.
Any desiring aspirant can crack advanced communication in a short period by having a thorough understanding of the above-mentioned topics. We hope these tips help you and wish you the very best!